Slovenian to English translation by Google
Bozidar Debenjak (1935) is in the early sixties began to teach at the Department of Philosophy Faculty of Arts, the last item was a professor of social philosophy and philosophy of history. Since 2001, Professor Emeritus. His bibliography includes more than 300 titles, mostly in magazines and journals, the book by Friedrich Engels - History and disposal (1970 and 1981), in the alternative: the Marxist studies (1974) and enter the Marxist philosophy (several editions). Editorial and translation was involved in the issue of Marx's works in the Slovenian language, translated Hegel's phenomenology of spirit and mind in history. As a critical observer of global and domestic social relations, points out that the rapid rise of new economies izpel without freedom of the individual. "If this does not happen, the whole story of the emancipation of the individual, let's call it a western, okcidentalna, something that unfortunately goes on the scrap heap of history," says dr. Debenjak.
When analyzing the causes of the current social crisis that has spread across the world, social scientists, statesmen and politicians reach for the old parts of the thinkers that you might find in them appropriate medication for the current ills of the world. Last year, Slovenia has published The Collected Papers of change the world, it is the importance of Marx's theses ekspliciran on Feuerbach, in particular the 11th thesis, which says that "only philosophers the world has been interpreted variously, but in this case to change it." However, the world that we want to change, first of all realize that to cope with the demanding change.
> True. Especially because we are now in the deepest crisis in human history, not only economic, but, like any major crisis, the broader social dimension. And not started a year or two problems in the U.S. housing market, but its roots go back to the seventies of last century when it was called the oil crisis, although it contained all the elements of a structural crisis. Such structural crises last about 25 years, then it is always about the same date followed by a long period of prosperity. The current crisis is different: not ended somewhere in the nineties and passed into prosperity, but continues and is now exacerbated the financial crisis, its current phase, the financial meltdown.
In the introduction to the said proceedings argue that the loss was all that had strength.
> It started with the loss of the gold dollar basis during the Vietnam War when the U.S. really brought the cost of this war on the world and its economy. That this is completely irrational war, it was clear to everyone but the U.S. rush to war no one could prevent. At that time resisted anything less than students in Europe and the U.S. Establishment, this is relatively tolerated because it was all the owners of capital, it is clear that for non-US war and throw money out the window. Maybe our time is more ripe for the necessary social changes, as capitalism began to show in his vampire image, but so far no one had the power to stop this march. With the globalization of the world have experienced the true "locusts," as it says the current president of the Social Democratic Party in Germany, Franz Müntefering, various banking and Pension or similar funds especially from the U.S. are full of fictitious money started thinking about maximizing rendito destroy by European companies in healthy businesses lay off workers and sell their assets, with money that it actually was, thus destroying the real business. According to estimates cited by our eminent economist Dr. Joze Mencinger is in this virtual world of finance obračalo from three to six times the notional money than the actual product. So we have been witness to the real looting, which allow this irrational mode of economic, especially financial, of the system. So it was not anymore. The balloon had burst. This virtual building has collapsed. And it did. Behind the law has left devastation - but also a lot of redistribution of wealth.
We could say that neo-liberalism, as Marx said, the German idealistic philosophy, in fact "false consciousness", but never really come to life, and nowhere, even if it was all full of?
> Neo-liberalism is considered to be inside out. There was a pompous. Even in the former Yugoslavia in the context of Marxist center, which was then headed by dr. Lev Kreft, released a new codec on the right hand, which has been shown, how confidently stepped to the podium and announced the ideologues of neo-liberalism that socialism will soon only a memory and an absolute fall in history. As far as real socialism, it happened. They have reconciled with the world. He was not able to race with capitalism, for socialism, as we knew in the Soviet model, is made in the less developed world, on the periphery, and in fact was not an alternative to capitalism could not have a decisive influence on developments in the center, so in the developed Western world. He did not have sufficient democratic and not economic development and innovative powers.
Marx wrote in Capital that the company deals with the analysis as it does naturalist, reveals a process where it is reflected in its purest form, without knowing what is going on. This land is it England, the most developed country, which is to others, including Marx's homeland of Germany, showed "an image of their own future." What was happening in real socialism, but there could be no image of the future, and with us when we discuss these issues, we realized that essentially what happens in the center of global capital, rather than on the periphery, that we are not ideologues want to hear, but they have to accept this truth because they did not have a real counter-argument.
And so nice to hear the supposedly self-concept.
> This is a special story telling, but also the story of zamudništvu. O it was in the European labor movement after 1 speech World War II. Her father, Anton Pannekoek, Herman Gorter, Karl Korsch, were on the defensive, because workers are urged, which, after a victorious march taylorizma landowner was not more of their work and knowledge in the process, but an appendage of the machine on the conveyor belt. Self-governing theory is therefore developed a humanistic ideal, but something that no longer exist. Interestingly, the leader of the Russian Revolution, Lenin deaf to such ideas, because he was enthusiastic over the conveyor belt, the subsequent Soviet apologetika is this mode of production in the book Great Conveyor emphatically sang a hymn, which can be read also in the Slovenian translation.
Marx's analysis of capitalist society really could not deal with the Russian case because the first "socialist countries" not yet, but when it came, it was in fact a departure from Marx's ideas.
> Russian Bolshevik theory and practice are far from Marx. If you read the book Serbian historian Latinka Perovic Planned revolution, it will find a plethora of Bolshevism predecessors - some of it is also polemiziral collaborator Friedrich Engels Marx - who had their own, "Russian" theory of social development. From these sources come mainly Russian Revolution. The German communist Rosa Luxemburg, who was killed 90 years ago the German soldateska, the Russian Revolution in its most solid team and criticized Lenin advocated libertarian socialism, which is essential for Marx. Bolsheviks from the very beginning warned not to zaplezajo in political dictatorship, because, as he says, can not be imagined that the virtuous people, after many years of support of the socialist dictators, taken from their hands full freedom as a Christmas gift. Or, as he later said Herbert Marcuse, "Freedom is the condition of liberation."
Even Slavoj Zizek in his essay repeat Lenin writes that "repeat Lenin does not mean to repeat what Lenin did, but things which he failed, his missed opportunities." Should be read today by Marxist authors?
> If we now witness ruins of European ideas, this is so because it is so far known model of real socialism succeeded blamirati humanistic socialism and capital spend, which contains this idea. It will require great effort and much time will have elapsed before they conceived a new vision of the humane society will be faced with the project of the current capitalist society.
Marx, after the defeat of the revolution in 1848, realized the difficulty of this work and the crackdown that factions within the League of Communists, which required immediate action and the seizure of power, which was not able to. Even Herbert Marcuse, German-American philosopher and sociologist, some of which have proclaimed an ideology student movement at the end of the sixties, this was followed Marx's warning. He realized what kind of disposal are socialist countries brought thoughts of real socialism in the periphery of the world and that to solve the problem simply helpless. He knew that the takeover does not mean anything if you're not qualified to manage it. In many ways we are completely at the beginning and it is now essential to establish critical thinking about what is happening around us in order to co-očimo with various theories of social development, but should not be read triumfalistično, but we must also recognize their falls .
Marx on Feuerbach theses in talking about the clash of "false consciousness" in the Grundrisse (Routes critique of political economy) and has also embarked on a systematic exposure of the outgoing political economy, which is thought through their own scientific apparatus of historical materialism. Today, only deals with Immanuel Wallerstein radical and comprehensive critique of the capitalist system.
> The very nature of capitalism is essential words. Is changing its format and modalities. Therefore, individuals approach the criticism of capitalism only in individual segments. Wallersteinov contribution is especially important to analyze the relationships between the centers of capitalism, namely the developed Western world, and peripheral and less developed countries. At the end of capitalism, has announced over fifty years. Then the center is no longer able to exploit the periphery at the expense of low wages, lower social standards and environmental destruction with impunity.
In this context, an interesting example of communist China, a country of the periphery, which has become the third economic power in the world with the rise of capitalism, but without recourse to democratic standards and human rights.
> China in the final phase of globalization open up its economic resource and offer the market its competing products, which are the result of low prices of shame. An employee in this "land of socialism" is completely unprotected and without any rights. Just look at those accidents in Chinese factories and mines, for which we know most of them do not occur in public. How serious a problem is with the handling of European shows Siemens, which is kind of initiative established a support fund for disabled workers, which may seem cynical, because workers may be injured in his factories, but primitive and greedy Chinese state capitalism is unable to systemically to help these people. China is an irresponsible state response to such incidents and for a long time expires to take action after it enters the world of news about the accident.
But China is already an important world player as well as industrial, financial and innovative company.
> Fast catching up with the developed world. Has followed the same path as Japan decades ago. Even Japanese goods previously considered to be cheap and bad. Patents are not interested in them and were not worried about theft of intellectual property. In this emulation built their own development. If today you hear of Japanese goods, but you know that is superior. It has long been a fantastic series of inventions country. The Chinese are doing the same and it seems even better. When the Germans came to China with its automobile industry, the Chinese quickly put them side by side with their twin Mercedes, of course, under another Chinese brand. An excellent copy of a German car. In order to effectively tailor the Far East. Today, foreigners are powerless, because there is no system that would effectively protect against the Chinese intellectual property. When the protection of intellectual property beneficial to China, as it happened in Japan, will make the order. Now, there is no one who could compel this enormous country in something that itself refuses.
Although the current crisis has affected the whole world, however, it seems, the worst in the U.S. who are losing the role of global hegemon. What are the risks "march" Eastern economies, China and India, and their philosophy of life and economy of the rest of the world?
> The capitalist mode of production is only one, universal and everywhere and always hanker to maximize profits. This also applies to Chinese, Indian or Russian capitalism. The difference between the capitalist system is the only kind of political system, obtained and established standards of democracy and human rights. In Europe, we write about a completely different story than in China where the biggest human right - the right to sit. In a global world is entering a company preddemokratičnimi systems where an individual does not apply anything, the whole being is all. It is a world in which the individual has not emancipate itself, and viewed by European eyes, the question is when will the system of rapid economic ascent, without freedom of the individual, izpel when it will, in the Marxist, the development of productive forces smashed. If this does not happen, the whole story of the emancipation of the individual, let's call it a western, okcidentalna, something you will regret may be able to go on the scrap heap of history. It was awful and terrible loss, because I would be worth only as much as would be awarded among all together.
But Europe has a chance in this globalized world, where will be organized within the EU. May again become a center of the world?
> The European Union is responding to the challenges of this world and also the internal transformation of European societies. This process brings many new and requires a reassessment of European history with a wider European perspective to every nation and country. For all participants of this new European life brings an end to the limitations of their national history. Even in our increasingly seen as the Slovenian Reformation as an integral part of the European Reformation, and it is right that we do in other areas, rather than confining it to its historical spots. And if you look at this process, you may find that the historical achievements of European nations, including Slovenian, nor so small as to seem self-defense allotment.
I am European, because Europe is a kind of locomotive that pulls behind this, if zaustaviš, and, if any process is more mature than at home, after modeliraš his life. Even for such a pattern of development, such as education in the time of Maria Theresa, was Slovenia's advantages over other South Slavic nations in Yugoslavia and force the developed part of the country. And that's after more than a half century!
And one aspect of the EU's role in a globalizing world is to be noted. With its transnational structure can successfully subsume their extravagance capital. This is always for profit, and the search for profit is not without problems for sustainable development. In soigri nation states and national economies have somehow regulate things. Once the capital of superstate, but not anti-player, which through different mechanisms, preventing extravagance and thereby ensure sustainable development. At the global level there has been no one to disturb self-destructive hunting for profit, so we need the EU, which together with some new international institutions to arrange for the order. Already these two reasons are enough to make a man a convinced European.
But it seems that the EU is not able to make daring steps towards the creation of a new type of democracy within their societies, because it is itself in pretty much "lost" in the neoliberal management of social processes. Why the spring dried up in Europe to find new avenues of development that is too charged to the humanities?
> Europe with the two world wars, many lost in the economic and intellectual fields. Have benefited the U.S. in the last hundred years with open arms to accept a European intelligence of their soils, running away from nacifašizmom well before communism. This loss was in Europe and intelligence twofold: Europe has lost intelligence, that is your audience. Still faced with this deficit. Many thinkers who are not found in the U.S., he soon returned to its European natural environment. A typical example of this was Herbert Marcuse, who are guests invited by the German students. They also returned Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer. Habermas is a man on both sides of the ocean, lectured in the U.S. and Europe, but European tradition endured in America and not American in Europe.
New U.S. President Barack Hussein Obama comes to the political arena with a different philosophy than by previous American presidents have, and gives hope for a different world and the U.S..
> For the first few days showed that the president different caliber, so the cut with some of Bush's conservative choices. It's not just Guantanamo, the American disgrace to Cuba, but is rotated to remove the ban on abortion funding, which of course upset some Catholic circles. The steps the U.S. judging Obama returning to basic American values and libertarian tradition. This is the slogan "Yes, WE CAN" (Yes, we can do), promised his voters, particularly young people, they should not izneveriti if he wants a second term. This of course can be quite pragmatic behavior, but it seems that Obama really wants to change American society, and shows that in his reign oportunističen less than he would in his place by someone else.
He will not be. Logs will be throwing him under my feet. Deeper will be his steps, multiple opponents will play, but that is how politics is not. Will need to appease those who have full privileges. If not, it will happen the same way as in the story of Greenland, whose name suggests that it once was "green land". Then they have colonized northern Europe and in it put their settlements. At the time t. i. little ice age, lost business. For the survival of the inhabitants should be diverted to agriculture in the hunt. It was not possible without permission of the lords, especially bishops, who had held the privilege of hunting. And since not go away, everything was destroyed. The same will happen the U.S., if not tackled much-needed social change. Everything goes in maloro.
This story is instructive for Slovenia, but Obama and his work as responsible for policy in times of crisis properly. Gathered around me Intellectual cream, which has made analysis of the situation, and now jointly seek the best solutions for overcoming the crisis and the necessary social changes.
If I understand you well, the new Slovenian government, in your opinion, is not equipped with a comprehensive analysis of the situation.
> The current prime minister Borut Pahor had the courage to set about their work just as Obama is first confronted with the Slovenian intelligence reflections on the crisis. For a long time we have witnessed panpoliticizmu as Vanja Sutlić, one of the greatest philosophers in Zagreb called the illusion of the policy itself is capable of everything and therefore declare all the political problems, so they are able to solve only policy. I am concerned over the current response of the Slovenian authorities on the request of voters for a different mode of governance. They demanded that experts have more weight in the process of democratic decision-making mode. Password right people in the right place at the beautiful, but anti-climactic. All politicians have to cope with social problems, analyze them, but it should be in decision-making clear who is responsible for what. The task of government is to establish a diagnosis and choosing the appropriate therapeutic means for treatment. All that know her say experts nanizajo a therapeutic method, the governing policy and choose between them. With this promise, the current coalition came to power. People are also expected to change the political paradigm dictates and kupčkanja between political parties with a new, truly a new policy that will significantly listen to professionals, then assumed responsibility for its decisions.
In the limelight this time people have a problem "tycoon" acquisitions that are financed by future profits, and perversely high reward managers. These issues are also receiving a deep moral dimension!?
> Over the claims made by Dr. Joze Mencinger that nowadays we do not have business owners, property owners but we would all have to seriously imagine. In the heat of neoliberal campaign is forgetting the many social functions of enterprises, but now we are in the world and come to a miserable and tragic end of the managerial revolution. Managers in their revolutionary promises from the mid-nineteenth century offered milk and honey, to convince us that economic rationality will automatically take care of everything in this country and do not need. Such ideas were first arrived at the former trockisti first managerial revolution ideology. The idea has backfired because too many managers were concerned only with property and have created a casino capitalism, as it says Mencinger. This played well with us. A special feature here is that managers are first properly found that too much policy intervention in their entrepreneurial pot, and therefore decided to become owners themselves. They took loans from banks and set it next return to the company from which banks pay principal and interest. The companies are impoverished capital. The consequences of this irrational way of creating a private owner we have a long face. It is interesting that the previous government doing tolerated as long as her owners did not begin to resist, recalling that the company purchased the interests of peace before the authorities. Well, this is immediately detected tycoons! Now of course these are no longer possible acquisitions.
It is strange that people today because of the crisis and bad managers lose their jobs and take it all just rather resignedly, without major protests.
> Unemployed people have never demanded radical change. A man without work if you find yourself in extreme distress, will tackle vandalism at the most, because he is left with something else. The stone can be thrown into the window, but that nothing is achieved. Horrible recently viewed Beti Metlika workers who have lost their job in their factory shop, the products were branded their factory Beta, but made in China. Even for them this should be a fearsome sight, because the others are out of work, they have lost everything before they oželi failure to finish, now you can only view the products in the store.
What you would expect from the government if it is at least feeling a bit left, it is to protect workers from extreme exploitation. And if it is a little levoliberalna must prevent people remain without work, because it melts well with their purchasing power. When this happens, it is no longer possible to maintain the real economy above water. Obama, Merkel, Sarkozy and Minister - all stand before the same problem, which is called: how to ensure the purchasing power of households. It is a power that globalization is destroyed because she went on a hunt for cheaper labor abroad. It is paradoxical that, until recently, managers receive bonuses if they are to rationalize operations, read redundancies, and achieve good results, visible economic writers have written about slavospeve.
First time - due to greater awareness on the global level - we can expect some changes in the development of European and Slovenian companies. Significant improvements are possible at all, without prejudice to property ownership?
> When Marx spoke of the capitalist, he had in mind the personification of capital, as the personification of a worker. This was true for the capitalist, who is the owner. The manager has the responsibility to another company if it ever does. His job is to organize labor market and global market. This behavior can be seen from Schremppa Jürgen, who began Daimler merged with Chrysler and created a chasm, which is only požiralo money and can not be resolved. When he did his commitment Mitsubishi and create billions in losses there, he was dismissed by the fabulous severance. I noted that modern managers are responsible only to owners of capital, ie property owners, not their companies. Today, only a few owners, emotionally tied to their company. The owners are anonymous company, subject to ideology anonymous society with equity ratios, which are simply elusive. You will have to change something. Above all, it must be included in this story of a strong control light that will not only light up the owners of capital, but the information society at the time of the public provide insight into the events. All the information is not strategic corporate secrets.